Research

Out-of-School Time (OST) Terminology

Umbrella Terms
After school time
  (e.g., Flannery, Williams, & Vazsonyi, 1999; Marshall et al., 1997);
Out-of-school time
  (see Duffett & Johnson, 2004; Larner, Zippiroli, & Behrman, 1999; National Institute of Out-of-School Time [NIOST], 2007)
Specific Terms (not exclusive)
After-school programs
  (Durlak & Weissberg, 2007; Mahoney, Parente, & Lord, 2007);
Extracurricular activities
  (see Fredricks & Eccles, 2006a, 2006b, 2010; Mahoney, Larson et al., 2005; Urban, Lewin-Bizan, & Lerner, 2009)
Organized/unorganized activities
  (see Mahoney, Larson et al., 2005; McGee, Williams, Howden-Chapman, Martin, & Kawachi, 2006);
Structured/unstructured activities
  (see Larson, 2000; Mahoney, Lord et al., 2005; Persson, Kerr, & Stattin, 2007);
Formal/informal activities
  (see Posner & Vandell, 1994);
Free-time activities
  (Bergen & Fromberg, 2009; McHale et al., 2001);
Leisure time/leisure activities
  (see Csikszentmihalyi & Larson, 1984; Persson et al., 2007);
 

Articles for Parents

Generation M2: Media in the Lives of 8 to 18-Year-Olds

As anyone who knows a teen or a tween can attest, media are among the most powerful forces in young people’s lives today. Eight- to eighteen-year-olds spend more time with media than in any other activity besides (maybe) sleeping—an average of more than 7½ hours a day, seven days a week. The TV shows they watch, video games they play, songs they listen to, books they read and websites they visit are an enormous part of their lives, offering a constant stream of messages about families, peers, relationships, gender roles, sex, violence, food, values, clothes, and an abundance of other topics too long to list. Understanding the role of media in young people’s lives is essential for those concerned about promoting the healthy development of children and adolescents, including parents, pediatricians, policymakers, children’s advocates, educators, and public health groups. It is the purpose of this study to foster that understanding by providing data about young people’s media use: which media they use, which they own, how much time they spend with each medium, which activities they engage in, how often they multitask, and how they differ from one another in the patterns of their media use. Our aim is to provide a more solid base from which to examine media’s effects on children and to help guide those who are proactively using media to inform and educate America’s youth.

Children whose parents make an effort to limit media use--through the media environment they create in the home and the rules they set--spend less time with media than their peers.

  A Kaiser Family Foundation Study (January 2010)

Articles for Schools

Specific Features of After-School Program Quality: Associations with Children’s Functioning in Middle Childhood

This longitudinal study examined associations between three after-school program quality features (positive staff–child relations, available activities, programming flexibility) and child developmental outcomes (reading and math grades, work habits, and social skills with peers) in Grade 2 and then Grade 3. Participants (n = 120 in Grade 2, n = 91 in Grade 3) attended after-school programs more than 4 days per week, on average. Controlling for child and family background factors and children’s prior functioning on the developmental outcomes, positive staff–child relations in the programs were positively associated with children’s reading grades in both Grades 2 and 3, and math grades in Grade 2. Positive staff–child relations also were positively associated with social skills in Grade 2, for boys only. The availability of a diverse array of age-appropriate activities at the programs was positively associated with children’s math grades and classroom work habits in Grade 3. Programming flexibility (child choice of activities) was not associated with child outcomes.

It appears that in both Grade 2 and Grade 3, both boys and girls are sensitive to how positive the after-school program staff are to children in their programs.

  Pierce, K.M., Bolt, D.M., Vandell, D.L. (2010). American Journal of Community Psychology.

Articles for Communities

Building Citywide Systems for Quality: A Guide and Case Studies for Afterschool Leaders

Identifying quality as a priority is an important first step, but addressing it in a systemic way is complicated; it requires research, planning, consensus building, resource development, managing new processes and sometimes redefining old relationships. This guide can help those working to create better, more coordinated afterschool programming get started building a QIS, or further develop existing efforts. It helps readers understand what constitutes an effective QIS, describes the tasks involved in building one, and offers examples and resources from communities whose work is blazing a trail for others.

DEFINITIONS OF LEARNING ARE SHIFTING. Momentum to expand learning opportunities beyond the school day and school building is spurring dialogue about what, where, when and how children and youth learn. Schools face unprecedented budget constraints as they consider these questions, making this an even more pressing opportunity to rethink the learning infrastructure in communities. Afterschool systems have a short window of time to demonstrate they can be viable, accountable partners in community-wide efforts to support learning and development.”

  Yohalem, N., Devaney, E., Smith C., & Wilson-Ahlstrom, A. (October 2012)

Annotated Bibliography

Focus: What is the impact of OST/ASP participation on children’s various environments?

Sources: Research studies that reported OST/ASP programs in Canada and the U.S.

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OST Articles

Active Healthy Kids Canada Report Card. (2013). Are we driving our kids to unhealthy habits? The 2013 Active Healthy Kids Canada Report Card on Physical Activity for Children and Youth. Toronto: Active Healthy Kids Canada.

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Barber, B. L., Eccles, J. S., & Stone, M. R. (2001). Whatever happened to the jock, the brain, and the princess? Youth adult pathways linked to adolescent activity involvement and social identity. Journal of Adolescent Research, 16, 429-455.

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Barber, B. L., Stone, M. R., Hunt, J., & Eccles, J. S. (2005). Benefits of activity participation: The roles of identity affirmation and peer group norm sharing. In J. L. Mahoney, R. W. Larson, & J. S. Eccles (Eds.), Organized activities as contexts of development: Extracurricular activities, after-school and community programs (pp. 185-210). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.

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Bartko, W. T., & Eccles, J. S. (2003). Adolescent participation in structured and unstructured activities: A person-oriented analysis. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 32, 233-241.

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Bergen, D., & Fromberg, D. P. (2009). Play and social interaction in middle childhood. Phi Delta Kappan, 90, 426-430.

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Biddle, S. J. H., & Asare, M. (2011). Physical activity and mental health in children and adolescents: A review of reviews. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 45, 886-895

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Bohnert, A., Fredricks, J., & Randall, E. (2010). Capturing unique dimensions of youth organized activity involvement: Theoretical and methodological considerations. Review of Educational Research, 80, 576-610. doi:10.3102/0034654310364533

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Bristol University: School for Policy Studies News. (2010). Screen time linked to psychological problems in children.

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Canada Safety Council (2009, October). Home Alone: Latchkey kids.

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Canadian Community Health Survey. (2009). Physical activity during leisure time. Statistics Canada.

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Collaborative for Academic, Social, and Emotional Learning. (2003). Safe and sound: An educational leader’s guide to evidence-based social and emotional learning programs. Chicago, IL: Author.

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Cooper, H., Valentine, J. C., Nye, B., & Lindsay, J. J. (1999). Relationships between five after-school activities and academic achievement. Journal of Educational Psychology, 91, 369-378.

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Côté, J. (2002). Coach and peer influence on children’s development through sport. In J. M. Silva & D. E. Stevens (Eds.), Psychological foundations of sports (pp. 520-540). Boston, MA, Allyn & Bacon.

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Darling, N., Caldwell, L. L., & Smith, R. (2005). Participation in school-based extracurricular activities and adolescent adjustment. Journal of Leisure Research, 37, 51-76.

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Dawes, N. P., & Larson R. (2010). How youth get engaged: Grounded-theory research on motivational development in organized youth programs. Developmental Psychology. Advance online publication. doi:10.1037/a0020729

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Dearing, E., Wimer, C., Simpkins, S. D., Lund, T., Bouffard, S. M., Caronongan, P., … Weiss, H. (2009). Do neighborhood and home contexts help explain why low-income children miss opportunities to participate in activities outside of school? Developmental Psychology, 45, 1545-1562. doi:10.1037/a0017359

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Decety, J., & Jackson, P. (2004). Functional architecture of human empathy. Behavioral and Cognitive Neurosciences Reviews, 3, 71-100. doi:10.1177/1534582304267187

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Dubas, J. S., & Snider, B. A. (1993). The role of community-based youth groups in enhancing learning and achievement through nonformal education. In R. M. Lerner (Ed.), Early adolescence: Perspectives on research, policy, and intervention (pp. 150-174). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

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Duffett, A., & Johnson, J. (2004). All work and no play? Listening to what kids and parents really want from out-of-school time. New York: The Wallace Foundation.

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Durlak, J. A., & Weissberg, R. P. (2007). The impact of after-school programs that promote personal and social skills. Chicago, IL: Collaborative for Academic, Social, and Emotional Learning.

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Durlak, J. A., Weissberg, R. P., & Pachan, M. (2010). A meta-analysis of after-school programs that seek to promote personal and social skills in children and adolescents. American Journal of Community Psychology, 45, 294-309. doi:10.1007/s10464-010-9300-6

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Dworkin, J., & Larson, R. (2006). Adolescents’ negative experiences in organized youth activities. Journal of Youth Development, 1.

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Dworkin, J. B., Larson, R. & Hansen, D. (2003). Adolescents’ accounts of growth experiences in youth activities. Youth and Adolescence. 32, 17-26.

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Dynarski, M., James-Burdumy, S., Moore, M., Rosenberg, L., Deke, J., & Mansfield, W. (2004). When schools stay open late: The national evaluation of the 21st Century Community Learning Centers Program: New findings. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance.

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Eccles, J. S., & Barber, B. L. (1999). Student council, volunteering, basketball, or marching band: What kind of extracurricular involvement matters? Journal of Adolescent Research, 14, 10-43.

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Eccles, J. S., Barber, B. L., Stone, M., & Hunt, J. (2003). Extracurricular activities and adolescent development. Journal of Social Issues, 59, 865-889.

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Eccles, J. S., & Gootman, J. A. (2002). Community programs to promote youth development. Washington, DC: National Academy.

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Fauth, R. C., Roth, J. L., & Brooks-Gunn, J. (2007). Does the neighbourhood context alter the link between youth’s after-school time activities and developmental outcomes? A multilevel analysis. Developmental Psychology, 43, 760-777. doi:10.1037/0012-1649.43.3.760

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Feldman, A. M., & Matjasko, J. L. (2005). The role of school-based extracurricular activities in adolescent development: A comprehensive review and future directions. Review of Educational Research, 75, 159-210.

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Feldman, A. M., & Matjasko, J. L. (2007). Profiles and portfolios of adolescent school-based extracurricular activity participation. Journal of Adolescence, 20, 313-332.

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Flannery, D. J., Williams, L. L., & Vazsonyi, A. T. (1999). Who are they with and what are they doing? Delinquent behaviour, substance use, and early adolescents’ after-school time. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 69, 247-253.

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Fleming, C. B., Catalano, R. F., Mazza, J. J., Brown, E. C., Haggerty, K. P., & Harachi, T. W. (2008). After-school activities, misbehaviour in school, and delinquency from the end of elementary school through the beginning of high school: A test of social development model hypotheses. Journal of Early Adolescence, 28, 277-303.

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Fraser-Thomas, J. L., Côté, J., & Deakin, J. (2005). Youth sport programs: An avenue to foster positive youth development. Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy, 10, 19-40.

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Fredricks, J. A., & Eccles, J. S. (2005). Developmental benefits of extracurricular involvement: Do peer characteristics mediate the link between activities and youth outcomes? Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 34, 507-520.

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Fredricks, J. A., & Eccles, J. S. (2006a). Extracurricular involvement and adolescent adjustment: Impact of duration, number of activities, and breadth of participation. Applied Developmental Science, 10, 132-146.

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Fredricks, J. A., & Eccles, J. S. (2006b). Is extracurricular participation associated with beneficial outcomes? Concurrent and longitudinal relations. Developmental Psychology, 42(4), 698-713.

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Fredricks, J. A., & Eccles, J. S. (2010). Breadth of extracurricular participation and adolescent adjustment among African-American and European-American youth. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 20, 307-333. doi:10.1111/j.1532-7795.2009.00627.x

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Fredricks, J. A., & Simpkins, S. D. (2013). Organized out-of-school activities and peer relationships: Theoretical perspectives and previous research. In J. A. Fredricks & S. D. Simpkins (Eds.), Organized out-of-school activities: Settings for peer relationships. New Directions for Child and Adolescent Development, 140, 1-17.

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Gadbois, S., & Bowker, A. (2007). Gender differences in the relationships between extracurricular activities participation, self-description, and domain-specific and general self-esteem. Sex Roles, 56, 675-689.

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Gardner, R. E., & Janelle, C. M. (2002). Legitimacy judgments of perceived aggression and assertion by contact and non-contact sport participants. International Journal of Sport Psychology, 33, 290-306.

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Gardner, M., Roth, J., & Brooks-Gunn, J. (2008). Adolescents’ participation in organized activities and developmental success two and eight years after high school: Do sponsorship, duration, and intensity matter? Developmental Psychology, 44, 814-830.

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Gardner, M., Roth, J., & Brooks-Gunn, J. (2009). Sports participation and juvenile delinquency: The role of the peer context among adolescent boys and girls with varied histories of problem behaviour. Developmental Psychology, 45, 341-353.

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Gilbert, S. (1999, August 3). For some children, it’s an after-school pressure cooker. New York Times.

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Gilman, R. (2001). The relationship between life satisfaction, social interest, and frequency of extracurricular activities among adolescent students. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 30, 749-767.

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Goerge, R. M., & Chaskin, R. J. (2004, March 18). What ninth-grade students in Chicago public schools do in their out-of-school time: Preliminary results. Chapin Hall Center for Children. University of Chicago.

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Guest, A., & Schneider, B. (2003). Adolescents’ extracurricular participation in context: The mediating effects of schools, communities, and identity. Sociology of Education, 76, 89-105.

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Hansen, D. M., Larson, R. W., & Dworkin, J. B. (2003). What adolescents learn in organized youth activities: A survey of self-reported developmental experiences. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 13, 25-55.

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Harmon, D. (2010). Frequently asked questions about overscheduling and stress. New York, NY: The Rosen Publishing Group, Inc.

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Harrell, J. S., Gansky, S. A., Bradley, C. B., & McMurray, R. G. (1997). Leisure time activities of elementary school children. School of Nursing, 46, 246-253.

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Harrison, P. A., & Narayan, G. (2003). Differences in behaviour, psychological factors, and environmental factors association with participation in school sports and other activities in adolescence. Journal of School Health, 73, 113-121.

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Harvard Family Research Project. (2003). A review of activity implementation in out-of-school time programs.

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Hirsch, B. J., & Wong, V. (2005). After-school programs. In D. DuBois & M. Karcher (Eds.), Handbook of youth mentoring (pp. 364-275). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

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Holland, A., & Andre, T. (1987). Participation in extracurricular activities in secondary school: What is known, what needs to be known? Review of Educational Research, 57, 437-466.

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Iannotti, R. J., Kogan, M. D., Janssen, I., & Boyce, W. F. (2009). Patterns of adolescent physical activity, screen-based media use and positive and negative health indicators in the U.S. and Canada. Journal of Adolescent Health, 44, 493-499.

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Kaiser Foundation Report. (2010). Generation M2: Media in the lives of 8- to 18-years-old.

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Kegler, M. C., Oman, R. F., Vesely, S. K., McLeroy, K . R., Aspy, C. B., Rodine, S., & Marshall, L. (2005). Relationships among youth assets and neighborhood and community resources. Health Education & Behavior, 32, 380-397.

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Kemper, H. C., de Vente, W., van Mechelen, W., & Twisk, J. W. (2001). Adolescent motor skill and performance: Is physical activity in adolescence related to adult physical fitness? American Journal of Human Biology, 13, 180-189.

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Larner, M. B., Zippiroli, L., & Behrman, R. E. (1999). When school is out: Analysis and recommendations. Future of Children, 9(2), 4-20.

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Larson, R. W. (2001). How U.S. children and adolescents spend time: What it does (and doesn’t) tell us about their development. Psychological Science, 10(5), 160-164.

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Larson, R. W., Hansen, D. M., & Moneta, G. (2006). Differing profiles of developmental experiences across types of organized youth activities. Developmental Psychology, 42, 849-863.

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Larson, R.W., & Verma, S. (1999). How children and adolescents spend time across the world: Work, play, and developmental opportunities. Psychological Bulletin, 125, 701-736.

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Lerner, R. M., Lerner, J. V., Almerigi, J. B., Theokas, C., Phelps, E., Gestsdottir, S. … Simpson, I. (2005). Positive youth development, participation in community youth development programs, and community contributions of fifth-grader adolescents: Findings from the first way of the 4-H study of positive youth development. Journal of Early Adolescence, 25, 17-71. doi:10.1177/0272431604272461

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Li, Y., Bebiroglu, N., Phelps, E., & Lerner, R. M. (2008). Out-of-school time activity participation, school engagement and positive youth development: Findings from the 4-H study of positive youth development. Journal of Youth Development, 3. doi:080303FA001

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Linver, M. R., Roth, J. L., & Brooks-Gunn, J. (2009). Patterns of adolescents’ participation in organized activities: Are sports best when combined with other activities? Developmental Psychology, 45(2), 354-367. doi:10.1037/a0014133

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Luthar S. S., Shoum, K. A., & Brown, P. J. (2006). Extracurricular involvement among affluent youth: A scapegoat for “ubiquitous achievement pressures”? American Psychological Association, 42, 583-597.

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Mahoney, J. L. (2000). Participation in school extracurricular activities as a moderator in the development of antisocial patterns. Child Development, 71, 502-516.

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Mahoney, J. L., & Cairns, R. B. (1997). Do extracurricular activities protect against early school dropout? Developmental Psychology, 33, 241-253.

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Mahoney, J. L., Cairns, B. D., & Farmer, T. W. (2003). Promoting interpersonal competence and educational success through extracurricular activity participation. Journal of Educational Psychology, 95, 409-418.

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Mahoney, J. L., Harris, A. L., & Eccles, J. S. (2006). Organized activity participation, positive youth development, and the over-scheduling hypothesis. Social Policy Report, 20, 3-31.

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Mahoney, J. L., Larson, R. W., & Eccles, J. S. (Eds.). (2005). Organized activities as contexts of development: Extracurricular activities, after-school and community programs. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

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Mahoney, J. L., Levine, M., & Hinga., B. M. (2010). The development of after-school program educators through university-community partnerships. Applied Developmental Science, 14, 89-105.

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Mahoney, J. L., Lord, H., & Carryl, E. (2005). An ecological analysis of after-school program participation and development of academic performance and motivational attributes for disadvantaged children. Child Development, 76, 811-825.

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Mahoney, J. L., Parente, M. E., & Lord, H. (2007). After-school program engagement: Developmental consequences and links to program quality and content. The Elementary School Journal, 107, 385-404.

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Mahoney, J. L., Schweder, A. E., & Stattin, H. (2002). Structured after-school activities as a moderator of depressed mood for adolescents with detached relations to their parents. Journal of Community Psychology, 30, 69-86.

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Mahoney, J., Vandell, D. L., Simpkins, S., & Zarrett, N. (2009). Adolescent out-of-school activities. In R. M. Lerner & L. Steinberg (Eds.), Handbook of adolescent psychology (3rd ed., pp. 228–269). New York: John Wiley.

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Malina, R. M. (1996). Tracking of physical activity and physical fitness across the lifespan. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 67, S48-57.

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Marsh, H. (1992). Extracurricular activities: Beneficial extension of the traditional curriculum or subversion of academic goals? Journal of Educational Psychology, 84, 553-562.

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Marsh, H. W., & Kleitman, S. (2002). Extracurricular school activities: The good, the bad, and the nonlinear. Harvard Educational Review, 72, 464-511.

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Marsh, H. W., & Kleitman, S. (2003). School athletic participation: Mostly gain with little pain. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 25, 205-228.

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Marshall, N. L., Coll, C. G., Marx, F., McCartney, K., Keefe, N., & Ruh, J. (1997). After-school time and children’s behavioural adjustment. Journal of Developmental Psychology, 43, 497-514.

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McGee, R. O., Williams, S., Howden-Chapman, P., Martin, J., & Kawachi, I. (2006). Participation in clubs and groups from childhood to adolescence and its effects on attachment and self-esteem. Journal of Adolescence, 29, 1-17.

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McHale, S. M., Crouter, A. C., & Tucker, C. J. (2001). Free-time activities in middle childhood: Links with adjustment in early adolescence. Child Development, 72, 1764-1778.

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McNeal, R. B. (1995). Extracurricular activities and high school dropouts. Sociology of Education, 68, 62-81.

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National Institute of Out-of-School Time. (2007, June). Promising afterschool practices: A showcase of innovative, creative, & successful afterschool programs.

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Nelson, M. C., Gordon-Larsen, P., Song, Y., & Popkin, B. M. (2006). Built and social environments: Association with adolescent overweight and activity. American Journal of Preventative Medicine, 31, 109-117.

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Oman, R. F., Vesely, S. K., & Aspy, C. B (2005). Youth assets and sexual risk behaviour: The importance of assets for youth residing in one-parent households. Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health, 37, 25-31.

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Osgood, D. W., Anderson, A. L., & Shaffer, J. N. (2005). Unstructured leisure in the after-school hours. In J. L. Mahoney, R. W., Larson, & J. S. Eccles (Eds.), Organized activities as contexts of development: Extracurricular activities, after-school and community programs (pp. 45-64). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.

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Osterman, K. F. (2000). Students’ need for belonging in the school community. Review of Educational Research, 70(3), 323-367. doi:10.3102/00346543070003323

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Pate, R. R., Heath, G. W., Dowda, M., & Trost, S. G. (1996). Associations between physical activity and other health behaviours in a representative sample of US adolescents. American Journal of Public Health, 86, 1577-1581.

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Peck, S. C., Roeser, R. W., Zarrett, N., & Eccles, J. S. (2008). Exploring the roles of extracurricular activity quantity and quality in the educational resilience of vulnerable adolescents: Variable- and pattern-centered approaches. Journal of Social Issues, 64, 135-155.

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Pittman, K. J., Irby, M., Tolman, J., Yohalem, N., & Ferber, T. (2003, March). Preventing problems, promoting development, encouraging engagement: Competing priorities or inseparable goals? The Forum for Youth Investment.

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Poortinga, W. (2006). Perceptions of the environment, physical activity, and obesity. Social Science & Medicine, 63, 2835-2846.

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Posner, J. K., & Vandell, D. L. (1994). Low-income children’s after-school care: Are there beneficial effects of after-school programs? Child Development, 65, 440-456.

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Posner, J. K., & Vandell, D. L. (1999). After school activities and the development of low- income children: A longitudinal study. Developmental Psychology, 25, 868-879.

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Rose-Krasnor, L., Busseri, M. A., Willoughby, T., & Chalmers, H. (2006). Breadth and intensity of youth activity involvement as contexts for positive development. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 35, 385-499.

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Scale, P. C., Benson, P. L., & Mannes, M. (2006). The contribution to adolescent well-being made by nonfamily adults: An examination of developmental assets as contexts and processes. Journal of Community Psychology, 34, 401-413.

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Scales, P., & Gibbons, J. (1996). Extended family members and unrelated adults in the lives of young adolescents: A research agenda. Journal of Early Adolescence, 16, 365-389.

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Schonert-Reichl, K. A., & Buote, D. (2004, March). Participation in structured school activities: Relations to social competence among inner-city Canadian early adolescents. Poster presented at the biennial meeting of the Society for Research on Adolescence, Baltimore, MD.

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Schonert-Reichl, K.A., Guhn, M., Gadermann, A. M., Hymel, S., Sweiss, L., & Hertzman, C. (2012). Development and validation of the Middle Years Development Instrument (MDI): Assessing children’s well-being and assets across multiple contexts. Social Indicators Research. doi:10.1007/s11205-012-0149-y

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Schroeder, J., Razaz-Rahmati, N., Corless, G., Negreiros, J., Ford, L., Kershaw, P., … Hertzman, C. (2009). Creating communities for young children: A toolkit for change. Vancouver, BC: Human Early Learning Partnership.

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Shanahan, M. J., & Flaherty, B. P. (2001). Dynamic patterns of time use in adolescence. Child Development, 72, 385-401.

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Shernoff, D. J. (2010). Engagement in after-school programs as a predictor of social competence and academic performance. American Journal of Community Psychology, 45, 325-337. doi:10.1007/s10464-010-9314-0.

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Silliman, B. (June, 2007). Critical indicators of youth development outcomes for 4-H National Mission Mandates. Prepared for National 4-H Headquarters with funding support from National 4-H Council.

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Simpkins, S. D., Fredricks, J. A., Davis-Kean, P. E., & Eccles, J. S. (2006). Healthy mind, healthy habits: The influence of activity involvement in middle childhood. In A. C. Huston, & M. N. Ripke (Eds.), Developmental contexts in middle childhood (pp. 283-302). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, Inc.

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Smoll, F. L., & Smith, R. E. (1996). Children and youth in sport: A biopsychosocial perspective. Madison, WI: Brown & Benchmark.

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